Later, we often hear the term industrial revolution 4.0 on various occasions. Some of you might already understand it and some are still confused about what industry 4.0 is.
The industrial revolution is a big change in the way humans process resources and produce goods. The industrial revolution was a phenomenon that occurred between 1750 – 1850. At that time, there were large-scale changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology. These changes have an impact on the social, economic, and cultural conditions in the world.
Industrial Revolution 1.0
The first Industrial Revolution that occurred in the 18th century was marked by the invention of a steam engine used for the production of goods. At that time, in England, the steam engine was used as the first mechanical loom that could increase the productivity of the textile industry. Work equipment that initially depended on human and animal power was eventually replaced by the machine.
In addition, steam engines are used in the field of transportation. International transportation at that time was sea transportation which still used wind power. However, the wind cannot be fully relied on because it could be the wind blowing in the opposite direction or even no wind at all.
The use of wind power in transportation also began to decrease since James Watt invented a steam engine that was far more efficient and cheaper than the previous steam engine in 1776. With the steam engine, the ship could sail for 24 hours straight if the steam engine was still supported by wood and coal sufficient.
The industrial revolution allowed Europeans to send warships to all corners of the world in a much shorter time. The imperialist countries in Europe began to colonize the kingdoms in Africa and Asia. In addition to colonialism, there are other impacts of the industrial revolution, namely environmental pollution due to steam engine fumes and other factory wastes.
Industrial Revolution 2.0
The 2.0 industrial revolution took place in the early 20th century. This industrial revolution is marked by the invention of electricity. The muscle power that was replaced by the steam engine, slowly began to be replaced again by electric power. Even so, there are still obstacles that hamper the production process in the factory, namely transportation problems.
In the late 1800s, cars began to be mass produced. This mass production does not necessarily make the production process time consuming because each car must be assembled from start to finish at the same point by a car assembler. That is, to assemble many cars, the assembly process must be carried out by many people who assemble the car at the same time.
The revolution took place with the creation of an assembly line that used a conveyor belt in 1913. This resulted in the production process changing completely because to complete one car, it did not require one person to assemble from beginning to end. Car assemblers are trained to become specialists who manage just one part.
In addition, car assemblers have done their work with the help of tools that use electric power which is far easier and cheaper than steam power.
This second industrial revolution also had an impact on military conditions during World War II. Thousands of tanks, aircraft and weapons were created from factories using production lines and conveyor belts. This happens because of mass production (mass production). The change from an agrarian society to an industrial society is arguably complete.
Industrial Revolution 3.0
After the second industrial revolution, humans still play a very important role in the production process of various types of goods. However, after the third industrial revolution, humans no longer play an important role. After this revolution, the industrial age slowly ended and the information age began.
If the first revolution is triggered by a steam engine, the second revolution is triggered by conveyor belts and electricity, the third revolution is triggered by machines that can move and think automatically, namely computers and robots.
One of the first computers developed in the era of World War II as a machine to break the code made in Nazi Germany was a computer named Colossus. The programmable computer is a giant machine as big as a bedroom that has no RAM and cannot take orders from humans through a keyboard. The ancient computer only received commands via paper tape that required enormous electrical power, which is 8,500 watts.
However, advances in computer technology developed unusually rapidly after the end of the second world war. The discovery of semiconductors, transistors, and then integrated chips (ICs) made the computer size smaller, the electricity needed less, and the ability to calculate more sophisticated.
The shrinking size allows computers to be installed in the machines that operate the production line. Computers have begun to replace many people as operators and controllers of production lines.
Industrial Revolution 4.0
Well, this is the industrial revolution that is currently being discussed. Industry 4.0 is a trend in the industrial world that combines automation technology with cyber technology. The term industry 4.0 comes from a project in the German government’s advanced technology strategy that prioritizes computerization of factories.
In industry 4.0, manufacturing technology has entered the trend of automation and data exchange. This includes physical-cyber systems, internet of things (IoT), cloud computing, and cognitive computing.
This trend has changed many areas of human life, including the economy, the world of work, and even lifestyle. In short, the 4.0 industrial revolution instills intelligent technology that can be connected with various fields of human life.
Many things that were unthinkable before, suddenly appeared and became a new innovation, and opened up a very large business area. It cannot be denied, various aspects of human life will continue to change along with the revolution and technological developments that occur.
Indeed, change is often accompanied by many negative impacts and new problems. However, change can always lead people to a better direction.
In conclusion, the 4.0 industrial revolution was not a frightening event, but instead opened wider opportunities for the nation’s children to contribute to the national economy.